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The Ford 3.5L V6 Twin Turbo EcoBoost Engine & Its Control System


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#1 03Steve

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 12:25 AM

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Recently I purchased a 2010 Lincoln MKT for my wife.  This vehicle was a concept in 2008 and is the first model that is equipped with the 3.5L V6 twin turbo EcoBoost engine.  With the purchase I've become interested in finding out what makes this engine tick.  With the 2016 Ford GT making over 600 horsepower with the latest generation 3.5L V6, I've become very interested.

 

The 3.5L is comprised of old and new tricks from Ford.  The injectors receive 65VDC of electrical push to overcome the 2200psi of fuel pressure on the top of them.  At that fuel pressure the stock fuel injectors are effectively 157.5lbs/hr.  The fuel pressure is generated by a two pump system - a low side and a high side.  The low side is a returnless system feeding 65psi into the high side, and is modulated by an FPDM.  The high side is a mechanical deadhead system driven off one of the engine cams.  One full revolution of the camshaft produces four shots from the high pressure pump.  At the end of the high side deadhead is an electronically linear sensor that reads the fuel pressure output at the rail.  It hovers in the lower half of the hundreds of psi at idle, and can go north of 2200psi if instructed to do so.  Burst pressure is at 3000psi, and is electronically noted in the PCM.  Whenever you tap the Lincoln's key fob unlock button and see the lights go on, you hear a two second prime of the low side of the fuel system clearing vapor out of the fuel lines and ensuring a proper prime for the high side.

 

The EcoBoost engine is a speed density mill.  There is no longer a MAF with this engine.  In it's place, there are three pressure sensors.  Two are on the engine, one is inside the PCM.  There is a conventional MAP sensor, a BP sensor, and a TIP sensor.  The BP is located inside of the PCM, with the MAP and TIP residing around the engine.  While most are familiar with a MAP, TIP stands for "Throttle Inlet Pressure".  There are many provisions within the EcoBoost PCM (referred as a Bosch TriCore by Ford) that are TIP based.  Limits for overboost, limits for ramp rate, limits for hardware protection, etc.  The boost is controlled much like fuel pressure is controlled in a EEC-V returnless fuel system.  There is a feedforward table with corrective terms, with the end result centered around Desired Throttle Inlet Pressure.  The PCM has a category titled "Turbocharger" with an extensive amounts of adjustments, with one subcategory titled "Boost Limit".  Within the Boost Limit subcategory there are limits based upon actual and modeled variables, all free to be changed in the name of opening up additional power out of the 355hp engine.

 

For temperature sensors, the 3.5L gets an additional one in comparison to some of the forced induction Mustangs from years prior.  There is a temperature sensor after the air filter (ACT), one at the throttle inlet (TCT), and one in the manifold (MCT). 

 

The engine compression of the 3.5L is 10.0:1.  Instead of a flat top piston, the block is stuffed with dome topped pistons with a recession in the middle.  Fuel is sprayed into the middle of the dome, with oil injector nozzles spraying on the underside of the piston to aid in cooling.

 

The cams are VCT (variable cam timing).  There is 29 degrees of total adjustment controlled from the PCM.

 

Like all late model Fords, the throttle is completely electronic.  There is no throttle cable.  The engine output is controlled in part by a Driver Demand table populated in Nm of torque, which expresses about 35.5% higher than the more widely-discusses ft/lbs.  Layers of spark are present, although not as bad as the layers found in the Copperhead HDFX.  Speaking of which, there is no weighting factor as a pointer as found with the HDFX layers. 

 

                                                                           

 

 

                                                                    ---To Be Continued---


Edited by 03Steve, 06 February 2015 - 02:01 AM.

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1999 Cobra Coupe  CURRENT

2.3L VMP TVS

9.53 @ 142mph - 1.35 60'

2.3L Whipple

9.77 @ 141mph - 1.44 60'

 

 


#2 03Steve

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 01:28 AM

In stock form, the Lincoln has what appears to be a generous chunk of power left on the table.  Not that the 5200lb AWD barge is something I'll be wanting to max out at the dragstrip, but it is still fun to see where power can be made. 

 

Under wide open throttle with the factory VVZ1 calibration, the commanded air/fuel starts out fairly lean in the 2000-4000 RPM range.  From 5000RPM up, air/fuel starts to go quickly towards the 10s.  Safe measure for a 10.0:1 compression engine that is advertised to run on 87 octane I'm sure.  This is one area that can be cleaned up with 93 octane.

 

The boost is electronically clipped off as the engine picks up speed.  There are multiple ways to trick this out.  Addressing the Desired Throttle Inlet Pressure seems to be the ticket here, although it is also possible to adjust limits and let the small turbos run a little wild while keeping the fuel & spark under wraps. 

 

The engine is equipped with knock sensing.  Built upon the N/A Cobras and Machs from 10-15 years ago, there are advance/retard rates in deg/sec units. These rates work in tandem with tables populated with total spark that can be removed or added.  Knock sensor sensitivity is adjustable per cylinder, and advance/retard can be setup to be applied per individual cylinder or globally across all.


Edited by 03Steve, 06 February 2015 - 01:54 AM.

2003 Cobra Coupe  SOLD
WFC8 #7 Heads Up Qualifier - Cobra Eliminator
MSC3 #1 Heads Up Qualifier - Fastest Ford Vehicle

 

1999 Cobra Coupe  CURRENT

2.3L VMP TVS

9.53 @ 142mph - 1.35 60'

2.3L Whipple

9.77 @ 141mph - 1.44 60'

 

 


#3 03Steve

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 01:44 AM

With the fuel injection going well into the 2000+ psi range and spraying directly into the cylinder, direct injection offers better atomization of fuel and reduction of tau potenional.  This means the end of injection timing can be pushed back later that what is seen in conventional engines.  In comparison to years prior where EOI crank angles in the 100-400 range are commonly seen, the direct injected 3.5L V6 engine is receiving 600 degrees EOI. This late firing can be played with further with a function that is based upon fuel pressure set points.  Coupled with changes to intake cam timing for improved cylinder fill / increased dynamic compression, experimenting can be done to find a little more power when octane allows.


2003 Cobra Coupe  SOLD
WFC8 #7 Heads Up Qualifier - Cobra Eliminator
MSC3 #1 Heads Up Qualifier - Fastest Ford Vehicle

 

1999 Cobra Coupe  CURRENT

2.3L VMP TVS

9.53 @ 142mph - 1.35 60'

2.3L Whipple

9.77 @ 141mph - 1.44 60'

 

 


#4 jinx44

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 07:31 AM

Interesting. I need to research the workings of my 2.0L ecoboost a little more. It needs a tune. Lol
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#5 snkbitten6

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 09:20 AM

Interesting... My wife has the 3.5L in her new Ford Edge...


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#6 Ben

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Posted 06 February 2015 - 12:31 PM

Very cool stuff. Pretty accessible for a layman like myself too.

 

What is this: "tau potenional"?



#7 disgustang 89

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Posted 09 February 2015 - 03:15 AM

Wifeys v6 dd? just leave it alone. They don't appreciate the time and work....on second thought, chop the exhaust off and turn up the wick. I heard ac delete frees up some HP.
5.0 H.O. cam only

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#8 TWN SCW

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Posted 09 February 2015 - 06:46 PM

Nice work.  I had a brand new MKT as a rental earlier this year and didn't realize until the 2nd day I had it that it had the 3.5 Ecoboost.


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#9 03Steve

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Posted 10 February 2015 - 01:03 AM

Thank you guys.  Time for some multiquote magic...

 

Interesting. I need to research the workings of my 2.0L ecoboost a little more. It needs a tune. Lol

 

What is the year/catchcode?

 

Interesting... My wife has the 3.5L in her new Ford Edge...

 

Thank you.  We were looking at the Escape, then the Edge, then the MKX, then chose the MKT.  All of them are nice rides!

 

 

Very cool stuff. Pretty accessible for a layman like myself too.

 

What is this: "tau potenional"?

 

Thank you. 

 

"Tau potenional" is poor spelling.  That should be "Tau potential".  Tau is engine manufacturer speak for buildup on cylinder walls due to poor atomization of fuel, typically found with late firing injectors on lower pressure fuel systems.

 

Wifeys v6 dd? just leave it alone. They don't appreciate the time and work....on second thought, chop the exhaust off and turn up the wick. I heard ac delete frees up some HP.

 

Yep, it's the family car.  I'm not going to tune this one, it has a warranty on it and I don't want to mess with it at all.  I am looking into the 3.5L Ecoboost engine for a DD of my own though.  Maybe another Lincoln.  I like them.

 

Nice work.  I had a brand new MKT as a rental earlier this year and didn't realize until the 2nd day I had it that it had the 3.5 Ecoboost.

 

If you get one again by chance, hit the air pedal at 10mph and have some fun!


2003 Cobra Coupe  SOLD
WFC8 #7 Heads Up Qualifier - Cobra Eliminator
MSC3 #1 Heads Up Qualifier - Fastest Ford Vehicle

 

1999 Cobra Coupe  CURRENT

2.3L VMP TVS

9.53 @ 142mph - 1.35 60'

2.3L Whipple

9.77 @ 141mph - 1.44 60'

 

 


#10 disgustang 89

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Posted 10 February 2015 - 04:43 AM

Ford needs to put the 3.5 EB on the mustang option sheet. Seems obvious but what do I know.
Or ecoboost 5.0 I'd like to see that.
5.0 H.O. cam only

100_0438-1.jpg

#11 snkpwr

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Posted 10 February 2015 - 07:06 AM

I'm just picturing Steve driving his Lincoln going philosophical about tuning Mattew McConaughey style lol

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#12 Mustang Matt

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Posted 10 March 2015 - 06:52 AM

Nice writeup Steve.




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